Thursday, January 23, 2020
Abortions Pro Choice supporters who claim it isn't do themselves and their cause a disservice. Of course it's alive. It's a biological mechanism that converts nutrients and oxygen into energy that causes its cells to divide, multiply, and grow. It's alive. Anti-abortion activists often mistakenly use this fact to support their cause. "Life begins at conception" they claim. And they would be right. The genesis of a new human life begins when the egg with 23 chromosomes joins with a sperm with 23 chromosomes and creates a fertilized cell, called a zygote, with 46 chromosomes. The single-cell zygote contains all the DNA necessary to grow into an independent, conscious human being. It is a potential person. But being alive does not give the zygote full human rights - including the right not to be aborted during its gestation. A single-cell ameba also coverts nutrients and oxygen into biological energy that causes its cells to divide, multiply and grow. It also contains a full set of its own DNA. It shares everything in common with a human zygote except that it is not a potential person. Left to grow, it will always be an ameba - never a human person. It is just as alive as the zygote, but we would never defend its human rights based solely on that fact. And neither can the anti-abortionist, which is why we must answer the following questions as well. 2. Is it human? Yes. Again, Pro Choice defenders stick their feet in their mouths when they defend abortion by claiming the zygote-embryo-fetus isn't human. It is human. Its DNA is that of a human. Left to grow, it will become a full human person. And again, anti-abortion activists often mistakenly use this fact to support their cause. They are fond of saying, "an acorn is an oak tree in an early stage of development; likewise, the zygote is a human being in an early stage of development." And they would be right. But having a full set of human DNA does not give the zygote full human rights - including the right not to be aborted during its gestation. Don't believe me? Here, try this: reach up to your head, grab one strand of hair, and yank it out. Look at the base of the hair. That little blob of tissue at the end is a hair follicle. It also contains a full set of human DNA.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Since we recently announced our $10001 Binary Battle to promote applications built on the Mendeley API (now including PLoS as well), I decided to take a look at the data to see what people have to work with. My analysis focused on our second largest discipline, Computer Science. Biological Sciences (my discipline) is the largest, but I started with this one so that I could look at the data with fresh eyes, and also because itÃ¢â¬â¢s got some really cool papers to talk about. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s what I found: What I found was a fascinating list of topics, with many of the expected fundamental papers like ShannonÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Information and the Google paper, a strong showing from Mapreduce and machine learning, but also some interesting hints that augmented reality may be becoming more of an actual reality soon. The top graph summarizes the overall results of the analysis. This graph shows the Top 10 papers among those who have listed computer science as their discipline and chosen a subdiscipline. The bars are colored according to subdiscipline and the number of readers is shown on the x-axis. The bar graphs for each paper show the distribution of readership levels among subdisciplines. 17 of the 21 CS subdisciplines are represented and the axis scales and color schemes remain constant throughout. Click on any graph to explore it in more detail or to grab the raw data.(NB: A minority of Computer Scientists have listed a subdiscipline. I would encourage everyone to do so.) 1. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (available full-text) LDA is a means of classifying objects, such as documents, based on their underlying topics. I was surprised to see this paper as number one instead of ShannonÃ¢â¬â¢s information theory paper (#7) or the paper describing the concept that became Google (#3). It turns out that interest in this paper is very strong among those who list artificial intelligence as their subdiscipline. In fact, AI researchers contributed the majority of readership to 6 out of the top 10 papers. Presumably, those interested in popular topics such as machine learning list themselves under AI, which explains the strength of this subdiscipline, whereas papers like the Mapreduce one or the Google paper appeal to a broad range of subdisciplines, giving those papers a smaller numbers spread across more subdisciplines. Professor Blei is also a bit of a superstar, so that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt. (the irony of a manually-categorized list with an LDA paper at the top has not escaped us) 2. MapReduce : Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters (available full-text) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no surprise to see this in the Top 10 either, given the huge appeal of this parallelization technique for breaking down huge computations into easily executable and recombinable chunks. The importance of the monolithic Ã¢â¬Å"Big IronÃ¢â¬ supercomputer has been on the wane for decades. The interesting thing about this paper is that had some of the lowest readership scores of the top papers within a subdiscipline, but folks from across the entire spectrum of computer science are reading it. This is perhaps expected for such a general purpose technique, but given the above itÃ¢â¬â¢s strange that there are no AI readers of this paper at all. 3. The Anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual search engine (available full-text) In this paper, Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page discuss how Google was created and how it initially worked. This is another paper that has high readership across a broad swath of disciplines, including AI, but wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t dominated by any one discipline. I would expect that the largest share of readers have it in their library mostly out of curiosity rather than direct relevance to their research. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a fascinating piece of history related to something that has now become part of our every day lives. 4. Distinctive Image Features from Scale-Invariant Keypoints This paper was new to me, although IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure itÃ¢â¬â¢s not new to many of you. This paper describes how to identify objects in a video stream without regard to how near or far away they are or how theyÃ¢â¬â¢re oriented with respect to the camera. AI again drove the popularity of this paper in large part and to understand why, think Ã¢â¬Å"Augmented RealityÃ¢â¬Å". AR is the futuristic idea most familiar to the average sci-fi enthusiast as Terminator-vision. Given the strong interest in the topic, AR could be closer than we think, but weÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably use it to layer Groupon deals over shops we pass by instead of building unstoppable fighting machines. 5. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (available full-text) This is another machine learning paper and its presence in the top 10 is primarily due to AI, with a small contribution from folks listing neural networks as their discipline, most likely due to the paper being published in IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks. Reinforcement learning is essentially a technique that borrows from biology, where the behavior of an intelligent agent is is controlled by the amount of positive stimuli, or reinforcement, it receives in an environment where there are many different interacting positive and negative stimuli. This is how weÃ¢â¬â¢ll teach the robots behaviors in a human fashion, before they rise up and destroy us. 6. Toward the next generation of recommender systems: a survey of the state-of-the-art and possible extensions (available full-text) Popular among AI and information retrieval researchers, this paper discusses recommendation algorithms and classifies them into collaborative, content-based, or hybrid. While I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t call this paper a groundbreaking event of the caliber of the Shannon paper above, I can certainly understand why it makes such a strong showing here. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re using Mendeley, youÃ¢â¬â¢re using both collaborative and content-based discovery methods! 7. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (available full-text) Now weÃ¢â¬â¢re back to more fundamental papers. I would really have expected this to be at least number 3 or 4, but the strong showing by the AI discipline for the machine learning papers in spots 1, 4, and 5 pushed it down. This paper discusses the theory of sending communications down a noisy channel and demonstrates a few key engineering parameters, such as entropy, which is the range of states of a given communication. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the more fundamental papers of computer science, founding the field of information theory and enabling the development of the very tubes through which you received this web page youÃ¢â¬â¢re reading now. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also the first place the word Ã¢â¬Å"bitÃ¢â¬ , short for binary digit, is found in the published literature. 8. The Semantic Web (available full-text) In The Semantic Web, Tim Berners-Lee, Sir Tim, the inventor of the World Wide Web, describes his vision for the web of the future. Now, 10 years later, itÃ¢â¬â¢s fascinating to look back though it and see on which points the web has delivered on its promise and how far away we still remain in so many others. This is different from the other papers above in that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a descriptive piece, not primary research as above, but still deserves itÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the list and readership will only grow as we get ever closer to his vision. 9. Convex Optimization (available full-text) This is a very popular book on a widely used optimization technique in signal processing. Convex optimization tries to find the provably optimal solution to an optimization problem, as opposed to a nearby maximum or minimum. While this seems like a highly specialized niche area, itÃ¢â¬â¢s of importance to machine learning and AI researchers, so it was able to pull in a nice readership on Mendeley. Professor Boyd has a very popular set of video classes at Stanford on the subject, which probably gave this a little boost, as well. The point here is that print publications arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the only way of communicating your ideas. Videos of techniques at SciVee or JoVE or recorded lectures (previously) can really help spread awareness of your research. 10. Object recognition from local scale-invariant features (available in full-text) This is another paper on the same topic as paper #4, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s by the same author. Looking across subdisciplines as we did here, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not surprising to see two related papers, of interest to the main driving discipline, appear twice. Adding the readers from this paper to the #4 paper would be enough to put it in the #2 spot, just below the LDA paper. Conclusions So whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the moral of the story? Well, there are a few things to note. First of all, it shows that Mendeley readership data is good enough to reveal both papers of long-standing importance as well as interesting upcoming trends. Fun stuff can be done with this! How about a Mendeley leaderboard? You could grab the number of readers for each paper published by members of your group, and have some friendly competition to see who can get the most readers, month-over-month. Comparing yourself against others in terms of readers per paper could put a big smile on your face, or it could be a gentle nudge to get out to more conferences or maybe record a video of your technique for JoVE or Khan Academy or just Youtube. Another thing to note is that these results donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that AI researchers are the most influential researchers or the most numerous, just the best at being accounted for. To make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re counted properly, be sure you list your subdiscipline on your profile, or if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t find your exact one, pick the closest one, like the machine learning folks did with the AI subdiscipline. We recognize that almost everyone does interdisciplinary work these days. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re working on a more flexible discipline assignment system, but for now, just pick your favorite one. These stats were derived from the entire readership history, so they do reflect a founder effect to some degree. Limiting the analysis to the past 3 months would probably reveal different trends and comparing month-to-month changes could reveal rising stars.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
As with most things in life, you do not really know what you have gotten yourself into until it is too late. Many people do not realize that they are dating a control freak until it is too late. By the time that they can tell that their other half is a control freak; they are in a long term, serious relationship. It would be much easier if we could all see the warning signs of our dates being control freaks before we commit our hear and long term happiness to them. Now you can tell the warning signs that your date is a control freak. Sign One When you realize that it is either your date s way or the highway. All relationships need to have a certain amount of give and take. People in relationships know that they must compromise to make both people in their relationship truly happy. A control freak will not know or agree that they should give up any ground on their ideas. If you choose not to go along with the control freak that you are dating s thoughts and actions, you will usually be shown the door in the relationship. Sign Two The person that you are dating believes in sticking to a rigid schedule in life as well as any dates that they may go on. Some sort of schedule is ok, and gives you a plan of where your life is going. The control freak is rigid to the point of not even wanting to discuss changing the schedule or adding to it. There have been countless movies highlighting the heart broken woman that is dating the man with the 5 year plan. That is how his and herShow MoreRelatedBeing Under Tremendous Peer Pressure1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfeelings. By being submerged in such an environment, individuals true identities are stolen and they are forced to pretendÃ¢â¬âall for fitting in with the crowd . In Freaks and Geeks, a television series set in the 80s, two unique groups undergo everyday fears, humiliations, and the complications of adolescence in high school. Freaks and Geeks reveals how social peer pressure negatively suppresses the aspiratio ns of teenagers and their capability to make moral decisions. In the series, teenagersRead MoreAnalysis Of Judith Wright s Asiatic Drinker , Remittance Man And Sanctuary 1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthrough the microcosm of society. Ã¢â¬ËMetho DrinkerÃ¢â¬â¢, being an existential work, depicts Wrights concerns of modern progress and exclusion. Wright exposes the entrapment of both figures with themes of conformity verses individualism, the inevitability of death and manÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with nature. Poetic techniques such as omniscient narrative and third person are used to heighten tension between reality and us as the responder. As an audience Ã¢â¬ËRemittance ManÃ¢â¬â¢ compels us to reflect upon the English class systemRead MoreThe Vs. Teleological Defence1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrelation to the innocent, it is illogical for the justification of such a God to be all-powerful, all-loving and perfect. The evils of the world can be divided into four categories. These being moral evils, natural evils, freak accidents causing evil and suffering and the aspect of death. The ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus believes that God cannot prevent evil: Ã¢â¬ËIs God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he bothRead MoreInformative Essay1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfoods like lechon, pork chops and some desserts that most FilipinoÃ¢â¬â¢s are fun of eating it. In fact, it is the main source why there are a lot of people who experienced mild strokes that lead to hospitalization and sometimes if not easily cured lead to death. So in order to become fit, you need to be choosy with what youÃ¢â¬â¢re eating. Better, if youÃ¢â¬â¢ll eat vegetables, fishes, and fruits in your meals to maintain your health in good condition. Step #2 Second thing to consider in becoming fit is your properRead MoreGetting Thinspired: The Danger of Pro-Ana Websites952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto get, where to get them, how many to take. These girls are aware that taking these pills puts them at high risk for cardiac arrest, but they are not worried. This an example of how skewed this disease makes people. These girls are willing to risk death in order to drop weight quickly. Pro-ana websites spark competition between these girls to see who is the thinnest. The drive to be the envy of other users pushes girls to extremes such as days without calorie intake. These networks cause extraordinaryRead MoreThe War On Gun Control1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The War on Gun Control The debate over gun control is one of the most heated debates currently going on in the government, and in the general population of the United States. One side of the debate says that guns are a legal right protected by the Second Amendment, and help to keep citizens safe if they are ever attacked. The other side says that guns are an evil thing, that they are the cause of death and destruction, and they want to infringe on AmericanRead MoreA Faithful Representation Of Reality1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLuigi enjoys smoking and does not enjoy his brother criticizing his opinions. In addition, when the judge challenges the twins to a duel, a gunfight ensues. During this scene, Luigi is content with fighting the judge, but as soon as Angelo gains control of their body, the twins run away from the fight (Twain 36). As for the internal turning point within Those Extraordinary Twins, this occurs during the last day of the election rally when Ã¢â¬Å"Luigi drank a couple of glasses of whis kyÃ¢â¬âwhich steadied hisRead MoreChildren With Asperger s Syndrome1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslife into adulthood and saw how he became an astronomy professor and even solved an error in Isaac NewtonÃ¢â¬â¢s work Fritz noticed when he was a child. (Coates) Hans Asperger died too early to ever see his work and studies mean much; a year after his death in 1980, the term AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome was used for the first time in a paper, Ã¢â¬Å"AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome: a Clinical AccountÃ¢â¬ by Lorna Wing, a British researcher. Her paper altered the Ã¢â¬Å"earlier accepted model of autismÃ¢â¬ that was the description Leo KannerRead MoreSteve Jobs and His Apple Essay example1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesappearance. Eventually, JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ obsession placed strain on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s hardware department and NeXT stopped producing computers and commenced a full transition to software development. Alan Deutschman emphasizes that Ã¢â¬Å"Jobs was described as a Ã¢â¬Ëcontrol fr eakÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËegomaniacÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëfearsome tyrantÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (2). It was this obsession with aesthetic perfection that Jobs carried over into Apple when he was brought back, and gave Americans the famous iThings. Todd Finkle and Michael Mallin wrote that in 1996 Ã¢â¬Å"AppleRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Grief1079 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The most common effect of death in a family is known as grief. When we understand it better, it makes the process a little less daunting. We have to realize as humans, we are not alone. Everyone has lost someone they loved and its a natural thing to deal with. There is no normal way of dealing with death. It doesnt have patterns or a set way of dealing with it. The first step in this process is realizing that it is okay to freak out and act crazy. Everything hits you all at once and you dont
Monday, December 30, 2019
Executive Summary The approach adopted in this paper is to discuss three types of research methods available within the business management and accounting and appropriate data analysis techniques available within the field. As Creswell (2002) noted, qualitative method concentrates on words and observations to express reality and attempts to describe people in natural situations. In contrast, the quantitative approach grows out of a strong academic tradition that places considerable trust in numbers that represent opinions or concepts. Also, there is another research approach, mixed method, which integrates both previous methods and it combines main aspects of two others for more applicable results. The use of a mixed methods approach isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This paper also will present a summary of the different research methods to conduct research in quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies and will evaluate this three common research approaches in conjunction with the various re search designs commonly used. Also, the main dimensions of the discussion about the relative characteristics and merits of quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology will be outlined; moreover the essay will develops the arguments that the use of a single methodology often fails to explore all of these components. Research Methodology Although, research is important in both business and academic activities, there is no adherence in the literature on how it should be defined. As D. Amaratunga et al. (2002) explained, it will come up from the many different offered definitions that there is an agreement which research is a process of examination and investigation as well as it is systematic, methodical and knowledgeable. There are three major research paradigms in business management and accounting: quantitative method, qualitative method and mixed method which they have individual approaches and the researchers gain specific results by using them; however, these methods have some differences from each other which it may cause some problems and deficiency in results. As Creswell (2002) has noted, quantitative research is the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and writing the results of a study, while qualitative
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Agriculture and Population Growth The earth is increasing its population by 90 million people per year, and yet we still have 5.9 billion people left to feed and to give shelter (Mitchell, 1998). Along with the increase in the population, there are also more people on Earth who are living longer lives. The global population boom has coincided with the improvement of health, and of productivity, around the world. On average, the human population today lives longer, eats better, produces more, and consumes more than at any other time period in the past (Eberstadt, 1995). Agriculture feeds people, but will it be able to feed the expanding global population, especially with its exponential increase? One way for the population of today andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Minimizing agricultural areas through intensification would seem like a great idea for preserving more land. Technology has been a viable part of higher productivity in agriculture. Innovations such as tractors, seeds, chemicals, irrigation measures, fertilizers, pesticides, and genetic engineering have played a major part in raising yields without having to clear more fields. But is technology the key to ensuring sustainable agriculture for a growing population. Many countries have tripled or even quadrupled the amount of grain they produce. Unfortunately, yields have been decreasing while population continues to increase. Grain yields per hectare have been slowing since 1990, rising only 3 percent from 1990-1996 or 0.5 percent per year. This does not keep pace with population growth which is at 1.6 percent per year (Brown, 1997). Along with population growth, there is a growing demand for a more calorie-filled diet, especially with the unprecedented rise in affluence in Asia. Meat is becoming the food of choice rather than low calorie wheat or vegetables. Since it takes more grain and water to produce animal protein than vegetable protein, added pressure is placed on the environment. From 1990 to 1995, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s grain consumption increased by 40 million tons; 33 million tons were consumed as animal feeds (Brown, 1997). As economiesShow MoreRelatedCultural Evolution And Population Growth1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWorldwide, the origin of agriculture has been a controversial subject among scholars not only due to the variety of proposals about where it was originated but also because of the different possible factors that triggered the early domestication of plants. As a consequence, there have been different theories and hypothesises that have addressed this important phenomenon; however, current researc h has provided new evidence which challenges previous ideas and argues for a new point of view that correlatesRead MoreThe Effects Of Low Food Production On Africa925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslow food production in Eastern Africa will be analysed and discussed. Firstly, rapid growth of population in Africa is responsible for degradation and soil erosion, decline of the landÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to recovery, and retain productivity. The unpredictable droughts or floods also introduce high levels of risk into farming, particularly in food production (Mortimore. M. 2005). In addition, limited smallholder agriculture and agricultural investment are also the main concerns that are causing the low foodRead MoreIntroduction . Many Factors Contribute To The Downfall1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith time. Among those factors, over-population would be one of the greatest contributors. The growth of the human population has continuously been on the rise. It has been predicted that it will increase even more throughout the years going from 7.2 billion to 9.6 billion (Gerland, et al. 2014). As the numbers of the human population increase the ecosystem is steadily declining because of the large demands of food and biofuels (Laurance, et al. 2014). Agriculture is best known as a techniques usedRead MoreGlobal Economic And Financial Crisis Essay840 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe acceleration of overall economic growth over the past decade (until the onset of the global economic and financial crisis) has been accompanied by a significant acceleration in the growth of credit in the economy. This broad trend suggests that high economic growth has been accompanied by financial deepening. However, despite such expansion of the financial sector, increasing concern has been expressed on financial inclusion in recent years (Mohan, 2012)1. One of the key feature of financialRead MoreEssay Totalitarian Agriculture1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTotalitarian Agriculture The idea of Totalitarian Agriculture is scary. Especially considering the fact that it is the exact type of agriculture that is being used in every civilization except for the remaining tribal peoples of the world. I will try to define Totalitarian Agriculture here: Ã¢â¬Å"According to an ethics, followed by every sort of creature within the community of life, sharks as well as sheep, killer bees as well as butterflies, you may compete to the full extent of your capabilitiesRead MoreHealth Decline and Population Growth of the Neolithic Revolution 909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesartifacts. During the Neolithic Revolution many groups became dependent on domesticated foods, meaning at least 50 percent of their diet consisted of domesticated foods (Kottack 2011:234). These Neolithic economies, whose primary diet consisted of agriculture, were associated with substantial changes in daily life. Until recently, scientists believed that these changes were for the improvement of human life. Most anthropologists and archaeologists agreed that hunter-gatherer societies were far more labor-intensiveRead MoreEmployment Is The Key Factor For The Development Of Developing Countries Like Bangladesh Essay906 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesitÃ¢â¬â¢s population is growing and the size of the economy is relatively small, employment creation has become a key factor for the overall development of the country. However, the national economic planning and development discourse of our country put much more emphasis on economic growth than the employment of workers. In national plans, the government formulates strategies and policies for development of different sectors of the economy and set targets of growth for the sectors - agriculture, industryRead MoreAgriculture in India: Before and After Independence1101 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAgriculture In India Ã¢â¬â Introduction Agriculture has been an integral part of the Indian Economy, before and after Independence, despite its decline in share of GDP (17.2% as of 2011). Half of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population depends on Agriculture as a livelihood. India is 2nd in farm output. It the largest producer of coriander, spices, millets and many more; second in fruits such as mangoes and papaya; and third in rapeseed, tomatoes and coconuts. Yet 1/3rd of Indian population is under poverty line. BeforeRead MoreBritish Industrialization Essay836 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrapid expansion in population, in what he called demo-economic systems. This was mainly on the basis that rural peasants required a labour force to produce output, and by increasing fertility, they were able to breed one. Despite this, Medick suggested that the reason for increased fertility was earlier marriage, as the previous relationship between agriculturally inherited land and marriage, had been removed by the growth of industries. Levine cited that this population growth was vital, as itRead MoreCritical Examination of Malthusian Theory of Population Essay986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHe lived his life from 1766 to 1834 AD. After writing an essay on the Principle of Population in 1805 AD, he became popular in the history of population studies. In his essay which later on became a very famous theory by the name Malthusian Theory. In the theory, he has drawn some assumptions such as: ol li value=1 Human beings have great potentialities to produce children li value=2 In agriculture Law of Diminishing Returns operates li value=3 Human beings will need food to
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Trends in the pub industry The British pub industry includes approximately 60,000 pubs that fall into three categories: managed (operated by a manager), leased/tenanted, and individual (operated by the owner) pubs (Mitchells Butlers, 2005). Ã The British Beer Pub Association reports that Ã¢â¬Å"in the last 10 years food sales in BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s 30,000 managed pubs have risen by 165%Ã¢â¬ , with smaller increases posted by the smaller 30,000 pubs (Bowers, 2005). The British pub has traditionally fulfilled a variety of roles, serving both as a point for informal communication, a social venue for watching sports games or playing indoor sports, or even a family get-together. We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing communications plan or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although recent scandals concerning Ã¢â¬Å"binge drinking and town centre rowdiness in 2004Ã¢â¬ attracted the attention to the pub as a source of such antisocial behaviour, its role in British society has traditionally been much broader (Mintel, 2004). In any case, exposure of pubs to negative publicity has led to strengthening of governmental regulations concerning the sector. The current fight in the pub industry is against Ã¢â¬Å"the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s health bill exempting non-food pubs from a proposed smoking banÃ¢â¬ (Bowers, 2005). This supposedly creates an uneven playing field for bars that serve food since they have to restrict smoking on their premises. At the same time, the proportion of pubs offering food service rose from about 50% in the 1990s to roughly 80% (Bowers, 2005). Owners and operators of bars subject to the smoke ban point to the fact that it will disadvantage food-serving bars, since the proportion of smokers among pub visitors is estimated by the British Beer Pub Association to be in the range of 40-50% Ã¢â¬â about Ã¢â¬Å"twice the national averageÃ¢â¬ (Bowers, 2005). The economic landscape in the UK is favourable for spending since consumers feel confidence in the economy. At the same time, pubs can be affected by the growing popularity of healthy lifestyles that includes a greater number of people Ã¢â¬Å"who simply want a quiet (or lively) drink in the comfortable, friendly type of pub that is permanently attractive for foreign tourists as well the British themselvesÃ¢â¬ (Mintel, 2004). More and more people will treat bars not simply as venues for drinking; on the contrary, they want to have meals there. Pubs begin to dissociate with rowdiness that tainted their image and emerge as credible eating establishments can be attributed to the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to appeal to a wider section of the market due to competition from supermarkets, government regulation and societal changes including a more health conscious consumer. Bright, open interiors and smoke free environments make them more appealing to such consumers and the female audience. However, alcohol sales remain the driving force of profitability in bars. In this area, consumers now seek a higher quality experience. One of the trends is increase in wine sales, attributable in part to the simple addition of ice to the drink (Solley, 2005). According to the National Office of Statistics, champagne is now one of the most regular purchases in the UK, particularly non-vintage and rosÃ © lines. The growth has been attributed to younger drinkers who treat champagne as less a drink solely for special occasions (Bill, 2006). Still, the British Beer Pub Association (2003) reports that Ã¢â¬Å"in the UK 28 million pints of beer are consumed every day, which equates to 100 litres per head each year Ã¢â¬â compared to 20 litres of wine per headÃ¢â¬ . Positioning Ã¢â¬â A bar with a difference The proposed bar on Lisburn Road will seek to differentiate itself from other bars in the city by offeringÃ a high quality customer experience catered to the tastes of a more exclusive clientele. The competitive advantage of the facility will be the provision of excellent service and superior food and drink not available in other establishments; focusing on these features, the bar will not engage in price competition. The wide assortment of traditional drinks will be complemented by a meticulously selected wine list including champagne varieties, locally produced cider and ale and a selection of less common malt whiskeys. Customers will be informed of the wide variety of drinks through wine and whiskey tasting promotions. The bar will appeal to health-conscious consumers with by offering low-cost meals from a standard menu prepared with the finest locally sourced ingredients. The emphasis on social experience, quality food, and large choice of drinks will be distinctive features of the new bar. Segmentation The new bar will target the following groups in the target market: Professionals coming in after work to have a few drinks and chat with colleagues after a long working day Couples looking for a pleasant social experience, dinner and sometimes a bottle of wine Students occupying the bar in the day-time and in the evening to enjoy a get-together and discuss class assignments WOOFS (well-off older folks) enjoying their post-retirement life and spending some of their time in local bars to have a pleasant dinner DINKS Ã¢â¬â couples without children but with a high income that permits them to allocate a large portion of their income to dining. Overall, the target audience will include individuals with high disposable income, high expectations of service, food quality and drink variety, and preference for establishments with style. References Bowers, S. (2005, October 28). Smoking ban is unworkable, says pub industry. Guardian. Retrieved April 29, 2006, from http://society.guardian.co.uk/health/news/0,,1602801,00.html British Beer Pub Association (2003). Beer and Pub Facts. Retrieved April 29, 2006, from http://www.beerandpub.com/content.asp?id_Content=704 Mintel International Group Ltd. (2004, August 1). Pub Visiting Ã¢â¬â UK. Retrieved April 29, 2006, from http://www.marketresearch.com/product/display.asp?productid=1037778g=1 Mitchells Butlers. (2005). Pub Operating Models. Retrieved April 29, 2006, from http://www.mbplc.com/index.asp?pageid=425 How to cite Marketing communications plan, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
It has long been understood that in order for a species to survive there needs to be a certain level of adaptation. It is an integral and well-known concept of the human race and a familiar and widely accepted component in the development of man. Essentially, this is what happened when the Paleolithic cultures evolved into the Mesolithic, and eventually the Neolithic culture. The concepts of specialization and diversification were relevant in the transformation of these cultures. Specialization can be defined as a structural adaptation of a body part to a particular function or of n organism for life in a particular environment (Merriam-Webster). The hunter- gatherers of the Paleolithic culture were prepared, sometimes at a moments notice, to pick up and evacuate their current living areas in order to migrate to an environment in which their living conditions would be greatly improved. Such conditions included better climates, and most importantly, more suitable land to live off of. We will write a custom essay sample on Paleolithic vs. Neolithic or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The scarcity of food was a major problem at the time. The hunter-gatherers of the Paleolithic society were tasked with solving this prevalent issue and they did so with the strategic use of tools and stone. Such tools include the common hand axe, chisel, the arrow and spearhead, and the grinder (Early Humans). Tools such as these enabled them to acquire larger quantities of food and necessities for a longer, and ultimately, a more healthful life. The decision process of the nomadic people with regards to the settlement location and migration patterns were largely a factor based upon the current conditions of the weather. There were not many women or children whom survived, the population mainly consisted of aggressive men who were a part of smaller groups, made up predominately of adults usually numbering round thirty. This in turn made it easier to provide food and shelter since there were a fewer number of people. During the Paleolithic era, peoples main occupation was probably finding enough food to survive. Eventually, the Paleolithic culture had to undergo a transformation in order to sustain a longer, improved lifestyle, taking them out of the Stone Age and into the New Age, also known as the Neolithic Era. The Neolithic culture began when humans discovered agriculture and raising cattle, which allowed them to no longer need to live a nomadic life style (Hunter- Gatherers to Farmers). The culture of the Neolithic people began to progress due to the fact that they began to settle with larger groups in a more stationary setting of one area. By this point, the Neanderthals were now all deceased. In this reality sprung the early signs of civilization such as cities, the social system of hierarchy, and an overall more literate population of people. This time period, beginning around about 9500 B. C. , became known as the agricultural revolution. They eventually evolved from hunter-gatherers into farmers whom still gathered food from the wild, ut they now had crops that they cultivated, making the food supply more abundant and more tailored to an increasing population. They were able to settle in fertile areas with predictable climate, usually near river basins (Neolithic vs. Paleolithic), but no longer were the inhabitants of these lands light on the earth like the Paleolithic people before them. The accumulation of more possessions such as livestock became prevalent, thus requiring more space. More women and children survived as well, making the size of the groups increase from around 100 to 1,000 eople; a drastic change from the Paleolithic groups. The increase in population caused diseases to spread amongst the groups of Neolithic people because of the close proximity and relativity to others. A social hierarchy eventually had to be enacted to keep the growing population in order. Technology, language, and art continued to advance in the Neolithic culture once people started to work together, extending the knowledge, and creating an environment more suitable for the developments to come. The issue of ownership also became prevalent since before here existed no concept of owning specific land. Private property came to be during this time, in effect causing the emergence of ownership of land, livestock, and even tools. As I became more informed on the transformation of the Paleolithic to Neolithic culture, I could not help but to start comparing the changes they underwent to that of the Native Americans and White Settlers. The Native Americans led a simple life, one marked by the use of land as a means of survival. They were a nomadic type of hunter-gatherers usually ruled by tribal leaders and elders Just as the Paleolithic eople were. When obstacles such as seasonal-change and weather were thrust upon them, they would uproot and find another place to survive. Also, the Paleolithic culture believed in spiritual rituals, as did the Native Americans. Dr. Miles H. Hodges explains, His (Paleolithic man) world view informs him that all events in life result from the actions of the spiritual world working in an invisible way in and through the visible world. The visible world of material reality is merely the outer form or dressing of an even greater inner reality (Paleolithic Society and Culture). This concept aligned with the beliefs of the Native Americans and their respect for the spiritual world. An example that is parallel with the spiritual beliefs of both the Native Americans and Paleolithic people would be if a hunt were to bring success there were important spiritual rituals to be performed. The Neolithic people became the White Settlers in my mind mainly because of the fact that life became more structured in a sense. Due to this structure, more focus was put on the advancement and expansion of the culture. They also had a similar effect on the land because they id not live lightly or have the same respect for it as the Native Americans did. The Neolithic Age marked the beginnings of established society for modern man, comparable to the White Settlers when they institutionalized beliefs such as religion. Overall, the reason for comparing the Paleolithic and Neolithic times with the Native Americans and White Settlers is because of the fact that an evolution, or change, that began approximately 1 1 years ago (Neolithic Revolution), essentially repeated at a time more relevant to generations closer to us. This concept, in turn, as made the subject in its entirety, an easier topic to understand. Changes are constant in this world; they have continued to be so since the beginning of the human race. In the end, the Paleolithic culture was a gateway into the Neolithic culture and ultimately served as a stepping-stone for the advancement of the Neolithic culture. The resulting innovations in society, economy, and technology in the Neolithic Age then paved the way for all of modern civilization. The change from roaming hoards of prehistoric man to settled agriculturists allowed for the establishment ot society out ot a nomadic culture.